Sunday, July 22, 2012

Rheumatic Diseases


The people popularly (but incorrectly) called "rheumatism" is actually a group of diseases that are largely manifested in the locomotor apparatus (arms, legs, spine, joints) and all share the pain and limited movement of the affected body part. 


Rheumatic diseases are among the gupu connective tissue disease.According to the present understanding of rheumatic diseases, many have a sensitization of the organism to various allergens (see more by allergies). They are known and relatively frequent changes in the form of pain in the joints (arthralgia) or true inflammation (arthritis) with other signs of allergy (urticaria, edema Kvinkeov etc.).

Connective tissue is among the supporting tissue with cartilaginous and osseous.
All these tissues are composed of: the cells and extra cellular substances that are different in each group.
Connective tissue cells are different: fibrocyte (fixed connective tissue cells), mesenchymal cells (undifferentiated cells of the supporting tissues of the embryos); histociti (loose tissue cells with the ability fagocitoze - devouring foreign particles), leukocytes (white blood cells - their main role is defense organism), metachromatic cells (a type of connective tissue cells that are different colors), fat cells (adipose tissue cells in which fat is deposited) and pigment cells (in which the pigment is present - and that gives color to the cells.
This is important because it determines the role of connective tissue cells and the role of connective tissue, which thanks to them not only supportive.

Various supporting tissues
According međućelijskoj substances, supporting tissues are divided into connective, cartilaginous and osseous tissue. Connective tissue is the softest, but it may become a more solid - cartilaginous, cartilaginous and exceed the toughest - the bone.
Connective tissue connects bone to form tendons, joint capsule, surrounds individual muscles and muscle groups, and combines them with the bones. In addition, it wraps the different organs and enters into them with the blood vessels and nerves and the cells listed above as needed, each done their part.
Intercellular substance consists of fibers in base substance and tissue fluid.
The basic material is clear and transparent homogna. Has the properties of colloidal solutions, and consistency varies from sol state to gel state. It is rich in acid mucopolysaccharides (a group of carbohydrates), hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfuric acid, ii.
In it are placed fibers: collagen (parallel bundles of collagen fibers albumoida) elastic (thin fibers, not a grade beams are composed of elastin and albumin are elastic) and reticular (very thin, abundantly branched and form a network - that is stretchable reticulum ). These fibers are found in collagen, because the difference between the more physical than the chemical composition.

Connective tissue
The connective tissue is divided into: 1 unformed second formed and 3 connective tissue with special properties.
First Unformed connective tissue is subdivided depending on the number of binding cells and extra cellular substances to:
a) rare connective tissue that has many cells a bit of extra cellular substances and are distributed throughout the body, and allows pomičnost organs, eg skin pomičnost to the ground, esophagus and trachea to the environment, bladder and others. This tissue by mechanical role and a role in metabolism, the deposit of fat, water retention, restoring all types of supporting structures, in defending the body against bacteria and other harmful effects.
b) dense connective tissue is composed of densely packed bundles of collagen fibers with few elastic fibers and a small number of cells. It is in the binding part of the skin, submucosa of the entire gastrointestinal tract (digestive organs) and the matrix the urethra.
Second Formed connective tissue are properly arranged all the listed components (cells and intercellular substance from its elements) that can respond to mechanical demands. It builds tendons, fibrous membranes, and other links.
Third Connective tissue with special properties: there is one slimy, elastic, reticular, adipose tissue and pigment.
The difference is mainly in the elementary substances and the role of tissue that is strictly dedicated.


A wide variety of symptoms
This comprehensive view is given to understand the concept - a disease of the connective tissue. It is clear that this tissue is in all parts of the body and to change - disease - can occur in one place, in many places, but they may be throughout the body, and is applicable to several diseases and the name of systemic disease.

If there is a change in the body, they occur in the interstitium (the interstices of basic cell bodies that are affected) and not the stem cells of the body.
According to the present understanding of rheumatic diseases, many have a sensitization of the organism to various allergens (see more by allergies). They are known and relatively frequent changes in the form of pain in the joints (arthralgia) or true inflammation (arthritis) with other signs of allergy (urticaria, edema Kvinkeov etc.)
This applies only to certain diseases and are still in the testing.

For such a broad group of diseases, they are present in various pathological processes with various development sopstvnim whether inflammatory or anti-inflammatory nature, degenerative or metabolic processes, acute or chronic course, the only common pain. For this reason it is essential to the classification of groups with more similarities to testing, monitoring and treatment could be standardized and properly implemented in all health facilities.

Here is the application of the following classifications:
The inflammatory rheumatism
First Rheumatic fever
Second Rheumatoid arthritis and its variants
Third Spondiloartritis Ankilopoetica (M. Bechterew - Marie - Stumpl)

4th Other forms of systemic connective tissue disease
a) systemic lupus eritemni (the process of facial skin)
b) polyarthritis nodosa
c) dermatomyositis
d) Scleroderma

II Degenerative rheumatism

Arthritis and spondylosis deformans and spondiloartritis.

Metabolic III rheumatism - gout

IV soft tissue rheumatism - fibrositis

(Muscular rheumatism or miofibritis, tendinitis, bursitis, tendovaginitis, neuritis, paniculitis or cellulitis).

Rheumatic disease of the first group (I) are systemic connective tissue disease (connective tissue affect the whole organism), are very bad general condition, with the evolution and leave a lasting impact. It is believed that the basis of these diseases is body hypersensitivity to certain allergens.

The second group (II) are degenerative diseases or arthrosis (arthrosis), a local nature, and pathological changes are manifested in one or more joints. They have no systematic character and does not affect the general health status of patients. Degeneraivnih changes occur (damage to cells and tissues, the loss of specific properties of cells and reduced ability for cell proliferation, adaptation and recovery), articular cartilage and bone, usually during the aging process and lack of sex hormones (first decrease and then a complete lack of).
It is important to note that there is individual susceptibility related to genetic factors. The main symptom is pain stronger or weaker intensity and is characterized by permanence. This pain is more matter, spoil the mood and a sense of tension in the victim's wrist (joint) and muscle spasms, but without the stiffness of the joints and lasting consequences.

The third group (III), metabolic rheumatism (gout)
Their personal disorder of purine metabolism (compound of purine bases and uric acid) which results in an increase of uric acid in the blood and the deposition of urate (uric acid salts) in the tissues of the joints (one or more), leading to inflammation, pain, stiffness, deformity.

The fourth group (IV) This includes all forms of rheumatism - fibroziti. They are characterized by local inflammation of the connective tissue on one wrist, and can be extended to the surrounding muscles. It can be caused or aggravated by strenuous work, moisture, and Obesity may be a provoking factor.Injuries and congenital anomalies may affect this type of disease, and degenerative rheumatism in older people.

Anyone who has any kind of rheumatic pain problems respond to weather, and often anticipating. Time instability acting on the autonomic nervous system (which works without the participation of our will) and causes in sensitive people joint pain and migraine headaches. This mechanism is related to the electrical state of the atmosphere. Amounts of positive and negative charge of ions in the air affect the nervous system by reducing the negative ions, a positive increase excitability of nerves. Any increase in the excitability of nerves causing pain in the joints, bad feelings and resentment.

Rheumatic diseases are more common, more and more cause temporary inability to work or permanent disability. Early and correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy can influence the course and outcome.

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