Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal disease kodžena the most common cause of failure of ovulation. Fundamental changes in this disease are cystic ovarian follicles in the cortex, the menstrual cycle without ovulation, menstruation rare, infertility, excessive body hair, hair loss, acne. The name comes from the appearance of the ovaries containing numerous cysts.
Based on the present diagnostic criteria is estimated that 5-10% of women in the fertile period of suffering from this disease. Ultrasonic numerous cysts in the ovaries and often find themselves in as much as 22 to 25% of women, but women still do not have other symptoms that accompany this syndrome and the remaining 15% of these cases speaks of polycystic ovary-like.
The cause of
The exact cause of PCOS is not completely known.
The clinical picture
Polycystic ovary projenama except in the ovary is characterized by disorders of the menstrual cycle and elevated levels of male hormones - androgens. Women are affected by irregular periods, or their complete absence, there is infertility, accumulation of fat in the abdominal region (male type of obesity), increased body hair, acne, hair loss, greasy skin, increased libido, increased clitoris. The clinical picture may be diverse. The syndrome is closely associated with numbness of insulin, which is a frequent incidence of diabetes. The ovaries are usually twice the normal, tense sivobele surface below which are used in the cystic size of 5 to 15 mm. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome should be monitored, investigated and treated the entire life because this disease is associated with a number of risks: the later menopause, different uterine bleeding, spontaneous abortions, two to three times more common, anemia, impaired blood fat levels, heart disease and blood vessels are seven times more frequently, the risk of disease from diabetes is 16% higher, hypertension occurs in 40% of patients, 2-3 times higher risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancer, often required removal of the uterus (hysterectomy ).
Findings can be very colorful and disease is different in some women. Diagnosis is a combination of clinical, ultrasound and laboratory findings of hormones.
Clinical findings include information about the symptoms of a woman, her former illnesses and family diseases ipregledom patients. The diagnosis of polycystic ovaries is now considered the gold standard ultrasound. Transvaginal ultrasound is highly reliable can measure and analyze the details of the ovary.
Approaches to treatment are different because they are both symptoms in some women. Treatment depends on symptoms, findings, and patient desire for children. The main measures of treatment are to reduce weight, increase physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol cessation, medication, surgery. In the treatment of a wide range of drugs that depend on the symptoms: hormonal birth control pills, GnRH analogues, a hormone that is released in the brain (the hypothalamus) and the effect on the secretion of pituitary hormones, drugs to control the increased body weight, hormone therapy, corticosteroids, drugs that suppress action of male hormones, drugs that enhance insulin sensitivity. Surgical treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome are:
- The surgical removal of ovaries
- Removal of all ovarian
- Ovarian electrocautery - the process where the electrode burns ovarian tissue