Vitamin A - retinol and akseroftol
Highmolecular alcohol, viscous yellow, oily liquid soluble. Destroyed by oxidation and the action of ultraviolet rays. Occurs in the body from carotene, a yellow pigment from plants. There are three related forms: A1, A2 and A3. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 0.8 to 1.5 mg. It is found in carrots, green vegetables, butter, cheese, yolk, fish oil, parsley, eel, apricots. It is important for maintaining epithelia, hormone secretion, cell growth of all organs, the quality of vision. Deficiency causes night blindness, skin lesions and digestive system, body weakness, deformation of the bones, dryness and softening of the cornea.
Vitamin D - kalciferol
Crystalline compounds soluble in fats, enters the body in food, resulting in the sunlight (ultraviolet rays).In the liver and kidneys are processed into active form, and stored in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue.There are 6 related forms (D1 to D6). Daily requirement for this vitamin: 5-10 mkg. It is found in fish oil, yeast, herring, sardines and other sea fish, eggs, avocado, butter, cream, beef. It is important for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, affects fertility, immune system and proper ossification. Deficiency causes rickets in children, porosity and softening of bones in the elderly, muscle spasms. Large amounts of vitamin D are toxic, and the daily dose is always combined with vitamin A.
Vitamin E - Tocopherol
Yellowish oil, soluble in fats, heat resistant and susceptible to oxidation. It is a known group of seven different compounds of the vitamin the same effect, but different strengths. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 10-15 mg. It is found in wheat germ, corn, sunflower and olive oil, walnuts, hazelnuts, avocados, almonds, kikirikuju, legumes. It is important as an antioxidant, influences the proper secretion of hormones, muscle and nervous system, protects against radiation, toxic substances, pharmaceuticals and metals. Reduces the risk of malignant diseases and protects the heart and circulatory system. Lack of this vitamin is not recorded.
Vitamin K (filohinon)
Yellowish crystalline compounds, soluble in fats, resistant to heat. There are seven types, of which 2 are produced by natural bacteria in the intestines and 5 synthetic. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 60-70 mkg. It is found in broccoli, spinach, kohlrabi, lettuce, offal. It is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin, which affects blood clotting. Lack of this vitamin is rare and occurs in long-term antibiotics, which destroy the intestinal flora.
Vitamin B1 (Aneurin, thiamine)
Crystalline compounds soluble in water and alcohols. She is sensitive to heat, the base solution and oxidizing agents. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 1 to 1.2 mg. It is found in grains (wheat, rice, soy), yeast, legumes, liver, cauliflower, pork. Neohodan for the normal functioning of nerve cells, stimulates growth, fertility, lactation, and digestion. Lack of this vitamin causes neurological disorders such as neuropathy, emotional insecurity, muscle weakness, fatigue, depression and disease beriberi.
Vitamin B2 (laktoflavin, riboflavin, ovoflavin)
Crystal compound žutonarandžaste color, soluble in water and alcohols, sensitive to oxidizing agents. The body is given in pure form. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 1 to 1.2 mg. It is found in dairy products, yeast, eggs, meat, grains, legumes. The ingredient has many important cofactors necessary for enzymatic processes in the body, affects the vision, participate in building cell lining, leather and red blood cells. His lack of influence on changes in the mucosa and causes inflammation of the tongue, eye, lip swelling, anemia, intestinal disorders, muscle weakness and growth restriction.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, adermin)
Crystalline compounds soluble in water and alcohols, resistant to physical and chemical agents, but not to ultraviolet rays. The body is entered in the form of provitamin to be driven by the liver into the active form of vitamin. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 1.2 to 2 mg. It is found in cereals, potatoes, eggs, fish, svinjsom meat, offal, green cabbage, bananas and yeast, and synthesized by intestinal flora. It is significant for metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and certain amino acids. Lack of this vitamin causes skin diseases and nervous disorders.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, antiperniciozni)
The complex chemical compound red, water-soluble and sensitive to air and light. It contains cobalt.Cobalamin is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms some, not create it either plants or animals.Daily requirement for this vitamin: approx 3 mkg. It is found in meats, milk, meat, eggs, and synthesized by intestinal flora. It is necessary for growth, the proper creation and maturation of red blood cells and normal functioning of the nervous system. Deficiency causes anemia and severe changes in the nervous system. For vegetarians there is a vitamin deficiencies, since plant foods do not contain enough vitamin B12.
Vitamin C (L ascorbic acid)
Colorless crystal compound sour taste, soluble in water, destroys the cooking, and the oxidation action of alkalis, resistant to freezing. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 100 mg. It is found in the bar, pepper, lemon, kiwi fruits, green vegetables, black currant, green walnuts, potatoes. It is necessary as a driver of metabolism in cells, the oxidative processes in the body and the work of many organs, plays a significant role in the formation of teeth and bone, healing of wounds and fractures. Improves circulation of iron in the body, stimulates collagen production and immunity. Its deficiency causes general body weakness, anemia, scurvy, and encourages the formation of osteoporosis.
Vitamin H (biotin)
Crystal compound hardly soluble in water and resistant to many chemical reactions. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 30-100 mkg. It is found in meat, eggs, liver, bananas, mushrooms, peas, cauliflower, spinach, nuts, chocolate, and synthesized by intestinal flora and the fatty acids. The form of the coenzyme involved in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Deficiency is rare and may occur due to prolonged use of antibiotics.
Vitamin Bc (Folic acid, folate)
Žutonarandžasti powder insoluble in water, a well-soluble in acids and bases. The body is entered as a provitamin and turns into an active form of citrovorum factor or folic acid. Daily requirement for this vitamin: about 400 mkg. It is found in brewer's yeast, the leaves of all plants, tomatoes, broccoli, oranges, wheat, eggs. It is necessary for proper development of bone marrow, making white and red blood cells, the synthesis of nucleic acids DNA and RNA. Deficiency causes anemia and lack of white blood cells and platelets.
Vitamin PP (nicotinamide)
Crystalline compounds soluble in water and alcohols. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 10-20 mg. It is found in beef and pork, salmon, mackerel, cod, nuts, potatoes, wheat, breskavama, yeast, and tobacco leaf. As an important component of enzymes necessary for oxidation in the body, affects the breakdown of sugars and participate in the creation of hemoglobin. Deficiency causes skin inflammation and skin diseases, intestinal disorders, nervous and mental instability and anemia.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Light-yellow viscous oil, soluble in water. The organism enters the animal form of coenzyme A in the small intestine to release the pantothenic acid, and then participate in the construction of various coenzyme in the body. Daily requirement for this vitamin: 4-10 mg. It is found in beef and pork, broccoli, kale, strawberries, oranges, milk, yeast, egg yolks. Empowers the body, affects the work hornoma, speeds healing of wounds, establish proper metabolism in the body. Deficiency has been recorded in humans.