Dr Olika Drobnjak-Tomasek
Pollen, or "invisible attackers" as they called experts, but by March, "hit" on the nose, throat, lungs ...And, more people are struggling. "Najdosadniji" as coughing, watery eyes, itchy nose and throat.Physician Dr. Olika Drobnjak-Tomasek, head of the Department of Immunology and Allergology Hospital "Bežanijska hair," he warns in an interview with "News" to the last ten years the number of respiratory allergies.
This increase is explained by better diagnosing, but also increasing the number and amounts of different allergens, general air pollution, and dwindling capacity of the human body to fight off the allergen.
* Why do allergies usually occur in childhood?
- A child is born with a certain amount already generated antibodies obtained from the mother.Unfortunately, these antibodies do not last long, and soon the body of the child must I create them. The immune response then the child is "unwritten board" and has yet to learn to recognize triggers, and to "decide" which triggers the "enemies" (viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi). To allergens in the air that the immune response of the child should not produce antibodies, but if it happens "breakdown" in his system immune response, it will be considered for these allergens "enemies", and focus on them "ammunition" - antibodies.
* Why is the most sensitive respiratory tract?
- The lining of the nose, throat, eye conjunctiva is the first barrier of defense. This barrier makes the lining of the digestive tract, and skin, but just in the lining of the respiratory tract during breathing, triggers "stick". Then come on stage all participants immuno particles due to the mucous membranes.Moment of recognition of the particles depends on the further course of events: if the cells responsible for sending signals to recognize that some kinds of pollen particles of grass "enemy", the immune response into action and starts the rest of the "army".
* What causes the unpleasant symptoms?
- Irritation of nerve endings in the mucosa causing sneezing and itching. Leads to bronchial constriction, irritation of nerve receptors, increased secretion of mucus, resulting in severe bronchospasm accompanied by coughing or choking. Furthermore, there are some conjunctivitis (itching and tearing the lining of the eye), nasal itching, sneezing attacks, blocked nose. Usually along with these symptoms occur, and skin allergies and urticaria, itching, redness.
n How do we know that it comes to allergies, and not, say, the common cold?
- In the beginning of allergy to pollen is really like a common cold. If symptoms persist for more than two to three weeks and there are always in the same period of the year, may be suspected seasonal allergy. If symptoms occur with increasing temperature, then the cause is allergies, but a viral infection.
* Are you over age may occur, and allergies to other substances?
- Certainly, there is a so-called. cross-reactivity to many allergens. This means that a person is sensitive to an ingredient, which is repeated in several allergens: one at the same time too sensitive to pollen and grass pollen, for example, cucumber or melon.
* A disease resulting from untreated allergies?
- Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic respiratory disease. It may be seasonal, like hay fever and can last the whole year, as well as allergies to dust mites. Those with allergic rhinitis are more likely to later developments and the expansion process of the lower respiratory tract: often with bronchospasm, or develop bronchial asthma.
* How can I prevent the serious consequences?
- It is best to treat allergies when he was still at the level of allergic rhinitis, since a large percentage may prevent further unintended consequences. It is therefore important that the patient initially send allergist - immunologist at the time.
* Does the emotional status can trigger allergies or exacerbate them?
- It is known that stress has a strong a strong impact on certain segments of the immune response.
* What is the treatment when the diagnosis of allergies?
- The first procedure is the removal of allergens from entering the body, which is often not entirely possible. This means that, for allergic rhinitis should first rinse the nasal mucosa, a bar of plain water, to reduce the concentration of allergens. Then, the drugs are used, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids and leukotrienes antagonists.
* What are the adverse effects of corticosteroids or antihistamines used to treat?
- Any excessive use of these drugs can have unintended consequences. New generation antihistamines do not cause drowsiness, such as was the case with earlier drugs of this group. The longer, the uncontrolled use of corticosteroids may lead to atrophy of the mucosa at the site of their penetration and bleeding, but with good control of doctors and following the instructions to be very rare. In asthmatic patients should be alert to the "Pump" and use them only as instructed by your doctor. Adverse effects of excessive use "pump" the rapid heart rate, sometimes with severe heart rhythm disorders.
* To whom vaccine is recommended for allergy, and what effects it has?
- For patients who meet the criteria can be applied allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT), or, as it formerly was called "vaccine". It is now generally applied so. "Oral" allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is safe and easy to apply: drop in or placed under the tongue, or applied to the cube of sugar and swallow. Application of this method of treatment relieved for a longer period of patient symptoms, or at least significantly reduced, and also reduces the need for using drugs. In our institution, allergenic extracts are used "to measure the patient", which are made at the Institute of Immunology and Virology "Torlak". Unfortunately, HIF does not recognize the cost of this treatment, and patients pay themselves.
* What is the best prevention of allergic diseases?
- Prevention starts from the first days of life by removing the child from the environment of all those adverse factors that contribute to allergies manifest, such as air pollution, tobacco, feather bedding, farm animals. Allergy to pollen is difficult to avoid, unless the patient is able to go into the flowering period to another environment. The concentration of pollen in the air is the lowest late at night, when no wind blows, or after rain. It is desirable to remove the flowers from the apartment, especially one that is booming or in a vase. It is possible to install special filters that do not miss the pollen in the home, workplace, or in the car.
USES AND CLOSING THE WINDOW
* What else can help against allergies? - Wearing sunglasses reduces allergen contact with eyes. Cladding after staying away from home and wash hair oslabađamo the allergens that are stored up in nature. It is, of course, regular hand washing and touching the nose or eyes, rinse your nose with saline or tap water, avoiding tobacco, close the window in the bedroom during the period when high concentrations of pollen in the air.