Infectious mononucleosis (mono) or glandular fever is often called the "love sickness". This title is only partially correct. With a kiss can be transmitted virus that causes the disease, but usually is spread by coughing, sneezing, using a glass from which she drank an infected person.
However, this disease is highly zarazna.Mononukleozu causing Epstein-Barr virus, although similar symptoms are sometimes caused by cytomegalovirus. The complete clinical picture of mononucleosis is most common in adolescents and young adults. Young children have minimal symptoms, and the infection often goes unrecognized. In less developed countries, mononucleosis is much more common in younger age groups and classic symptoms are not as common as in developed countries.
Mono is usually not serious, although the virus remains in the body for life. Most people exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus to the thirty-fifth year. The organism infected individuals produce antibodies that fight the virus when re-contact. In this way a person becomes immune and you do not get mononucleosis.Treatment mainly involves bed rest and take plenty of fluids.
Symptoms of mononucleosis
Problems that can occur with mononucleosis include:
- Sore throat and difficulty swallowing, it is possible to even further infections by bacteria that respond poorly to antibiotics.
- Swollen lymph glands in the neck and axillary pits
- Swollen tonsils
- Rush skin
- Loss of appetite
- Enlarged spleen
In children aged four to fifteen years, the virus can cause a mild illness that resembles a common respiratory infection. In older, mono causes more severe symptoms that last longer.
From the moment of contact with the virus, until the onset of symptoms, usually take four to six weeks, but in young children this period may be shorter. Symptoms such as fever and sore throat usually lessen within a few weeks, although fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes and enlarged spleen may last for several weeks longer.
When to seek medical help
If you feel tired and weak, have fevers that do not fall, headache, loss of appetite, skin rash and muscle pain, also have enlarged lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen - it is very possible that you have mononucleosis.
If rest and a healthy diet are not effective in relieving symptoms within a week or two, go with a doctor / physician.
Screening and diagnosis
Your physician / doctor may suspect mononucleosis based on your symptoms and examination.
If there is a need for additional confirmation, a Monospot test is to demonstrate the presence of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in your blood. This is a diagnostic test with results within a day. However, the infection can not be detected in the first week of illness. Other tests to detect antibodies requiring longer waiting on the results, but can detect the disease even in the first week of symptoms. Among the other blood tests, blood tests may be helpful. In the case of mononucleosis increased the number of white blood cells, may also reveal specific forms of white blood cells, so-called "virociti."
A significant complication of mononucleosis is enlarged spleen. In extreme cases, the spleen may rupture, causing sudden sharp pain under left rib cage. If such pain occurs, seek immediate medical attention - you may need surgery.
Most people with mononucleosis have a slightly enlarged liver (hepatitis). Jaundice occurs occasionally, usually in people older than thirty five years. About half of people with mono have a low count of platelets, which are blood cells whose role in blood clotting.
Mononucleosis can follow the following, rare complications:
- Anemia - a decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration decreased
- The virus can attack the heart
- Complications of the central nervous system (meningitis, encephalitis, seizures, Bell's palsy, Žilijan Bar syndrome)
- Enlarged tonsils can obstruct the flow of air breathing
Epstein-Barr virus can cause much more serious disease in people with compromised immune systems, such as people with HIV-om/AIDS-om, or people taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant.
Existing data suggest the existence of links between mononucleosis and an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis - a disease that causes muscle weakness. In one study of more than 60,000 women, researchers found that women who are suffering from multiple sclerosis have increased levels of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in the blood compared to women who are not suffering from multiple sclerosis. Another, even larger study, found that people with the highest concentration of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus have as many as thirty times more likely to develop MS compared to those with the lowest concentration. However, very few people who are exposed to Epstein-Barr virus suffer from multiple sclerosis, so scientists say that other factors must be present in order to develop the disease.
No specific therapy against infectious mononucleosis. Antibiotics do not work on viruses, including the Epstein-Barr. Treatment involves bed rest and fluid intake.
Sometimes streptococcal infections involved the sore throat of mononucleosis. It is possible to develop a sinus infection or infection of the tonsils. If this happens, you will need antibiotics to act on the bacteria associated with streptococcal infection.
To help you ease some of the symptoms, such as swelling of the tonsils and throat, the doctor / doctor may prescribe you a corticosteroid medication such as prednisone.
Mononucleosis is believed to spread through saliva. If you are infected, you can protect other people by making them you love them and will not share cups, utensils and personal hygiene at all times of disease and a few days after you drop the temperature. If you catch the disease mononucleosis, do not donate blood for at least six months after healing.
There is no vaccine against mononucleosis.
In addition to getting bed rest, some of these tips will help relieve symptoms:
- Drink plenty of fluids and fruit juices. The fluid will help the fever falls rapidly, to give pain in the throat and prevent dehydration that can occur due to elevated temperature.
- Take a painkiller. You can use acetaminophen or ibuprofen (Brufen), if necessary. However, aspirin and its parallels should not be given to children under sixteen years of age because they can cause a condition called Rejev syndrome.
- Gargle with salt water. Pour half a half a teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water and stir well, and thereby washing the throat. Do this several times a day to relieve sore throat.
Most signs and symptoms of mononucleosis ease within a few weeks, but it may take two or three months until you feel completely healthy.
Too rapid return to daily activities can increase the risk of back problems and worsening. If you are an athlete, be cautious when you will return to training, especially if they are in contact sports, especially if your spleen is enlarged, because then there is a real risk of rupture of the spleen. Children with mononucleosis and an enlarged spleen, for the same reason, should not engage in activities that require effort and physical activity or contact sports. They should be avoided for at least two months after complete recovery.
You can not get back all their physical activities immediately, but your doctor / physician may recommend a gradual increase in the pace of exercise is gradually regaining their strength as you recover from mononucleosis.
How to deal with the disease
Infectious mononucleosis can be extended flux, keeping you at home for weeks while you recover. Be patient with your body as it fights the infection.
During the first week you may be suvuše tired and feel so much weakness that you can not even get out of bed. However, fatigue eventually gives way. A sore throat is the worst for the first five to seven days of illness, and then weakens. Swollen lymph nodes should be back to normal in fourth week of illness.
For young people, the disease will mean some missed activities - classes missed in school, university lectures, business commitment, friendship and fun. Undoubtedly, you will need to slow down for a while.
If you have mono, you need not be quarantined. Many people are already immune to the Epstein-Barr virus that causes the disease, because they were exposed to the virus in childhood. But plan to stay at home, no school and no other activity until you feel better.
And of course, ask for help from friends and family as you recover from mononucleosis.