Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Mad Cow Disease


Synonyms:
(Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)

Introduction
There is a group of diseases known as spongiform encephalopathy transmission (PSE). Some PSE affect animals and some humans. Although Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (PSC), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and new variant of PSC (nvCJB) belong to the PSE group of diseases, they are still separate diseases, each with its own characteristics.

What is it?
Mad Cow Disease formally called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease was originally found in British dairy cattle determined age of age. People can be affected with BSE, but as a result of consuming contaminated food products can get a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJB).There is no scientific evidence to suggest that the PSC caused by BSE-infection.

Description of disease
The new version of CPS, first reported in March 1996. after 10 Britons under 45 years of age showed symptoms similar to those associated with the PSE. PSC was initially considered a specific disease, but further scientific analysis are shown symptomatic and pathological differences of infected brain tissue that has been compared to the PSC's victims. It is certain, however, that ten of the victims suffered from forms of transmission of spongiform encephalopathy, and researchers have called this condition a new variant of PSC (nvCJB). Evidence shows that there is a connection between the cattle disease BSE and human disease nvCJB. Experts believe that the mad cow disease, and diseases caused by prions nvCJB - normal protein molecules that become infectious when they are bent into abnormal shapes. These prions are transmitted to humans during the consumption of beef. This disease is characterized by long incubation period and the pathological changes in the brain that cause the tissues of the nervous system becomes like a sponge.

Who gets?
A recent study from the UK supports the link between BSE and nvCJB, so far as nvCJB probably developed as a result of human consumption of BSE infected products infected tissue of the central nervous system of cattle.Documented studies show that the GSE laptop, to date, found only in the brain, spinal cord and retina (eye tissue) naturally infected cattle.

Symptoms

Symptoms of mad cow disease:
Animals affected by mad cow disease may show nervousness or aggression, abnormal posture, lack of coordination, reduced milk production and weight loss despite a constant flow. The incubation period of illness lasts from two to eight years. While continuing with the appearance of symptoms, state of the animals are increasingly worse until they die or be destroyed. This typically takes two weeks to six months.

Symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (PSC):
CPS begins slowly with forgetfulness, depression, personality changes, strange physical feelings and problems with eye sight. Rapidly progresses to dementia, muscle spasms and blindness before eventually lead to death.Disease course is usually 4 to 6 months from onset of symptoms to death.

The symptoms of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease:
The new version of CPS is significantly different from PSC. NvCJB symptoms last up to 14 months compared with 4 months in PSC patients. Patients affected with nvCJB-experience early psychiatric symptoms such as depression, loss of coordination and early after the occurrence of dementia. Additionally nvCJB still appeared almost exclusively in people under 55 years of age, including a large number of adolescents, while the PSC typical of people over 55 years of age.

What results can I do?
A preliminary diagnosis of PSC and nvCJB by following neurological assessment and analysis of brain waves via EEG (electroencephalograph) and cerebrospinal fluid examination to establish the presence of 14-3-3 protein.Reliable and often definitive diagnosis in a living patient can be placed over the brain biopsy and subsequent examination of brain tissue. In uznapredovanih cases, infected brain will be spongy when viewed under a microscope for changes in cell structure. However, the implementation of a biopsy of the brain in living patients only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of PSC or nvCJB is difficult due to significant potential risks, such as extradural hematoma or brain abscess, the possibility of sampling uninfected tissue and a small chance that the procedure will result in any benefit for patient. The definitive diagnosis of PSC and other human PSE is generally established by analyzing brain tissue after death, or autopsy.
Recently, scientists have developed a new test that can be set early diagnosis nvCJB. Patients with nvCJB, but not those with PSC, seem to have known prion protein associated with the disease found in their tonsils (tonsils).Removal of a small part of the tonsil tissue and its analysis of the protein, scientists can now provide a definitive diagnosis nvCJB early. To date, nvCJB struck the only patients in Europe and the U.S. have discovered cases nvCJB.

Treatment
There is no treatment that can cure or control the PSC. Today, the treatment of boils down to symptom control and relief of the patient as much as possible. Opioid medications can help relieve the pain and drugs clonazepam and sodium valproate may help removing the unconscious muscle spasms.

Forecast
About 90% of patients die within a year. In the early stages of the disease patients may have memory loss, behavioral changes, lack of coordination and vision problems. As the illness progresses, mental deterioration and unconscious movements become more pronounced and follows blindness, limb weakness and coma.

Prevention
To reduce the risk of getting nvCJB from food, you should consider avoiding beef and beef products, or choose solid muscle meat portions for which there is less chance that they are infected than ground beef products such as burgers and sausages. It is believed that cow's milk and dairy products have no risk of transmission of mad cow disease.

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