Monday, April 9, 2012

Gastroenteritis


Synonyms:
Viral gastroenteritis, Norwalk viral, infections, rotavirus, enteric adenovirosis, "intestinal flu"

Definition:
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines accompanied by vomiting, watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps.

Description of disease
Viruses cause 30 to 40 percent of cases of infectious diarrhea in the developed world. After upper respiratory tract infections, viral gastroenteritis is the second most common disease.

Gastroenteritis can cause many types of viruses, but the most highly contagious rotavirus, Norwalk virus and an adenovirus serotypes.

Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children (highest incidence in children aged 3-15 months), and can occur in adults who are in close contact with an infected child (usually with milder symptoms). Rotavirus infection usually occur in winter in areas with moderate climates.

Norwalk virus is a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in children and adults throughout the year. The viruses that are similar to Norwalk virus are common among school-aged children.

Outbreaks of viral diarrhea is usually spread through fecal-oral. It is also possible to transfer from person to person by droplets. These viruses are often found in contaminated food or drinking water. Symptoms appear from 1 to 3 days after taking contaminated food or water.

Who gets them?
Rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Severe dehydration and death can occur in younger age groups of children. The virus causes 50% of children hospitalized with diarrhea. Outbreaks can occur in collectives such as retirement homes. Generally by the age of most children acquired antibodies to the virus.
Gastroenteritis usually affects young, elderly and people with weakened immune systems. The frequency of the two thousand people.

Symptoms
watery diarrhea (stools rarely contain mucus or blood) that lasts for 3-5 days rotavirus, Norwalk virus at 1-2 days and 1-2 weeks for adenoviroze).
colic
vomiting in 90% of patients, and was more pronounced in children
nausea
Additional symptoms that may be associated with disease
headache
weight loss
vomiting of blood
excessive sweating
cold and moist skin
muscle pain (myalgia)
joint stiffness
incontinence
temperatures above 39 ยบ C in 30% of patients
chills
poor appetite
What results can my doctor do?
Viral gastroenteritis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Stool culture findings may exclude bacterial pathogens.
Rotavirus and adenovirus infection can be quickly diagnosed using commercial tests (detection of viral antigen in the stool).

Treatment
The goal of treatment is to replace fluids and electrolytes (salt and minerals) lost diarrhea. Antibiotic therapy is not effective in viral diseases. Generally do not apply remedies for diarrhea, so. Antidiarrhoeals because they may prolong the infection. Self-care measures to avoid dehydration include taking electrolyte solution (rehidracijska oral liquid that can be purchased commercially available) in order to compensate for the lost liquid diarrhea which is particularly important in young children. As the greater the risk of dehydration in infants and young children, parents should carefully monitor the number of diapers changed per day when the child is sick. Soda and plain water does not replace the electrolytes needed for children who are dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea.Change of diet will usually be used in children with diarrhea until diarrhea stops. You do not need to eat very oily, sweet and spicy foods. You need patience to give the child a small amount of lukewarm tea from real tea or pomegranate.
Patients with diarrhea due to sickness are unable to take fluids by mouth may need infusion, especially small children. Be patient with children and they often offer small amounts of cooled tea from the bar. A child can eat normal food just is not very oily and sweet.
People taking diuretics need to be careful with diarrhea and may need to stop taking the diuretic during the acute phase of diarrhea. (It is always necessary to consult with your doctor before you stop the drug therapy prescribed).

Expectations (prognosis)
Most infections will resolve spontaneously. Children can be seriously ill due to dehydration caused by diarrhea.

Complications
Dehydration is a major complication.

Contacting your doctor
Find a doctor if you can catch the liquid, and there are symptoms of dehydration, especially in small children, including weak urination, weakness or dizziness, dry mouth, sunken eyes, concave fontanelle (soft spot on the head of the newborn and infant) and confusion (confusion) . Also consult with your doctor if diarrhea lasts more than a few days and if the observed blood in the stool.

Prevention
Most infectious organisms are transmitted with unwashed hands. Prevention is best achieved through the proper procedure with food and washing hands after using the toilet, and whenever hands are soiled.
Breast-feeding probably provides some protection against infection. After changing diapers must wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water, and the only place to change diapers should be disinfected.

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