Thursday, April 5, 2012

Gastritis


Causes, effects and risk factors
Gastritis can be caused by infection, irritation, autoimmune disorders or recovery of bile into the stomach (bile reflux). Infections can be bacterial or viral. Irritation can be caused by drugs (like aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs), alcohol, chronic vomiting, excessive secretion of stomach acid (due to stress), eating or drinking corrosive substances (such as poisons). Gastritis can occur suddenly and pass in a short period of time (acute gastritis) or takes a long time (chronic gastritis). Some forms of gastritis are:
erosive gastritis
Stress gastritis
Chronic (Helicobacter pylori gastritis)
autoimmune gastritis
Causes, effects and risk factors
The causes of acute gastritis are alcohol, digesting corrosive substances (erosive) or severe physiological stress.

Acute gastritis is often associated with severe acute disease (kidney failure, liver disease, burns, sepsis) or injury (fractures). Risk factors are taking NSAIDs (eg aspirin), taking large quantities of alcoholic beverages or severe physiological stress such as major surgery, injury, etc..

Chronic gastritis may be caused by irritation due to prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, pernicious anemia, autoimmune disorders, degeneration of the gastric wall due to age or long-term irritation of the lining of the return of bile into the stomach.

There is a strong correlation between the bacteria H. pylori infection and some diseases of the digestive system (ulcers, gastritis). Causal relationship between H. pylori and chronic gastritis surface is proved. In fact, almost all patients positive for H. show pylori gastritis in the antrum area (entrance area). Cure infection with H. pylori leads to healing of gastritis.
Almost all patients with duodenal ulcer have H. pylori gastritis. Therefore, infection of the bacterium may be a prerequisite for the occurrence of almost all duodenal ulcers (more than 90%) in the absence of other obvious factors such as the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, it is important to note that most people who are infected with H. pylori ulcers do not occur simultaneously in the duodenum and stomach. These facts suggest that host traits play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric or duodenal ulcer.
The strongest evidence for a pathogenic role of H. pylori in the development of gastric ulcer is reported reduction in the incidence of disease recurrence (relapse) cure the infection. Many people with chronic gastritis have no symptoms expressed.

People at increased risk of gastritis are those who suffer from pernicious anemia, a disorder of the blood or lymph system, people older than 60 years and people who take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Symptoms
pain in the upper part of abdomen
hiccups and burps
neprobavljivost
loss of appetite
nausea
vomit
vomiting blood or material like black coffee
dark stools

Signs and tests
EGD (ezofageogastroduodenoskopija) and biopsy (taking a piece of tissue) showed gastritis (endoscope shall be composed of a thin, lighted tube with an end of a tiny camera, the patient is mildly sedated and the doctor carefully introduce the endoscope through his mouth and throat to stomach and duodenum. Thus it is possible to observe the lining of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
X-ray search of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum-drinking barium porridge gets a clear picture of target organs and ulcers.
blood count showed anemia (if there is bleeding)
positive blood in the stool (possible)
Treatment
Treatment depends on the cause of gastritis. Medicines that neutralize stomach acid (antacids) or other medications that reduce gastric acid secretion will usually eliminate the symptoms and improve the course of the disease .. Drugs that can cause gastritis should be stopped. It is good that hospital patients who are stressed and not eating give medicines to reduce the production of stomach acid or medicines that neutralize stomach acid.

Antibiotic therapy is used in the treatment of gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori. On the market there are two groups of preparations were reduced gastric acidity: H2-antagonists (ranitidine, cimetidine, famotidine) and proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole). The combined treatment: antibiotics, blockers of acid secretion and gastric mucosa protectives. Currently the most reliable so. triple therapy with two antibiotics against H. pylori in combination with a drug that blocks the secretion of acid or protectives (eg, azithromycin + amoxicillin + omeprazole). It is used to relieve symptoms, kills his cause and prevent recurrence.Checking the effect of drugs on H. pylori is made by endoscopic examination or examination of breath after 4 weeks of therapy. Antacids (Gastal) are used to remove the symptoms of disease and as adjuvant therapy.However, triple therapy is the most reliable treatment for gastritis caused by H. pylori with.

Gastritis caused by pernicious anemia is treated with vitamin B12.

Expectations (prognosis)
Most gastritis well on medication.

Complications
A serious complication of blood loss and increased risk of stomach cancer.

When you visit your doctor?
Visit your doctor if symptoms persist for more than 2 to 3 days. Call a physician (emergency room) if you vomit blood or have bloody stools.

Prevention
Control of risk factors may play a role of prevention function.

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