Thursday, April 5, 2012

Fungal nail infections


What is a fungal nail infection?
Fungal infections of the nails in the hands or feet of medical terminology is referred to as onihomikoza. Fungal infections affecting the nail gradually and can completely destroy. Fungal infections start with the inside of the nail plate. In the initial stages of infection usually change color of nail, the nail becomes thickened, distorted and fragile. Exposure to heat and moisture favors the development of fungal infections (eg sweat that results from wearing closed shoes, use of common showers - in sports facilities, swimming pools). In the past, to treat fungal nail infections using drugs for local use. Therapy lasted long and was not effective, but now there are new drugs that are taken by mouth and are very effective.

Epidemiology
The prevalence among adults is 2 to 4%.

Risk Factors
Fungal infections are common in older people. This is because after 40 years, and nails grow more slowly and are less resistant to infection. There is a higher risk of fungal infection on your toes if your feet sweat heavily, and if you wear socks and shoes that hinder ventilation and do not absorb sweat. The infection can also develop if you are walking barefoot on damp places, and as a result of a complication of other infections. Fungal infections of the fingers are often caused by excessive exposure to water and detergents. Moisture that occurs under artificial nails can also stimulate the growth of fungi.

Signs and symptoms
Fungal nail infections are more common on the toes than on fingers and are mainly a cosmetic problem. Signs and symptoms include:
change the color of the nail - the nail becomes yellow, whitish or zelenosmeđ;
becomes thickened, distorted and fragile.
Pieces of the destroyed nail collects under the nail of a healthy and finally the entire nail may separate from their sockets.

Complications
Sometimes, fungal nail infections can be painful. Research also shows that it creates a greater risk for other, more serious problems with your nails. In addition, they can cause serious health problems for people with diabetes and those with weakened immune systems. In people with diabetes, it may disturb the circulation in the feet.Therefore, any relatively small foot injuries - including a nail fungal infection - can lead to serious complications, such as open wounds that are slow to heal.

When to seek medical advice?
Once a nail fungal infection begins, it can be held indefinitely if not treated. You should see a doctor at the first sign of infection. Fungal nail infections usually begin as small white or yellow spots on your nails, and later affects the entire nail plate.

Diagnosis
Diagnosis is made by:
appearance of the nail
and increasing cause of cultural content zagrebanog the affected nail. Examination under a microscope will show the body (to confirm the diagnosis) and allow identification of the types of fungi.

Treatment
Fungal nail infections can be difficult to treat, and recurrence of infection is common. If you have a yeast infection, your doctor may prescribe one of three oral antifungal medication, which are relatively new to the market. They include:
Fluconazole
Terbinafine
itraconazol
After application of these drugs get into the skin and accumulate in the infected nail to fungal infection eradicated.Usually eliminate the infection by 4 to 12 months, no recurrence of infection is possible. New drugs are more effective than those that are often used in the past - griseofulvin and ketoconazole. Ketoconazole applied to the mouth can have serious liver damage. Besides re javljane infection is more often seen after treatment with the older drugs. New medications are effective but can also have some side effects - whose scope ranges from skin rashes to liver damage. Itraconazol and Fluconazole on a smaller scale, can also cause adverse interactions with other medications, including some drugs that prevent blood clotting and anti-allergy medication. In addition to oral medication FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved another anti-fungal varnish - the first of its kind - called ciclopirox. Is easy to paint the infected nails and skin around them once a day. After 7 days, you need to separate the layers peel away and start with a fresh application. Daily use of light for a period of one year or longer are shown to assist in clearing the nail fungal infections. There are also antifungal nail creams without a prescription, which may help to soften the nail and partial halt the spread but not the eradication of fungal infection. If your nail infection or severe pain, your doctor may suggest removal of the nail. A new nail will usually grow in its place.

Prevention
To help prevent fungal infections, spend a good foot hygiene: Keep your nails dry and clean. Thoroughly dry your feet after bathing, including the spaces between the toes. If you are very sweaty feet, change socks frequently.Periodically remove shoes during the day and also after exercise. Replace shoes with closed toes shoes, open toes.Use anti-fungal spray or powder to your feet and inside shoes. Wear rubber gloves to protect hands from excessive exposure to water. Between the use of rubber gloves turn it to dry. Do not remove the skin around your nails. This may open the way for the bacteria in your skin and the nails. Avoid walking barefoot around public pools, showers or locker rooms. Choose a reliable manikerski and nail salon sterilizes its instruments. (And, although you may be tempted to hide from view a fungal infection, avoid using nail polish and artificial nails.) Wash your hands after contact with an infected fingernail. If you are not careful, a yeast infection can pass from one nail to the other.

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