Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Exanthema subitum

Three days of fever or exanthema subitum is the sixth of traditional egzantemskih (osipnih) childhood diseases.Discovered the electron microscope 1986th in lymphocytes of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and AIDS. The virus that causes it is called HHV6 (human herpes virus type 6).

What is it?
This harmless condition is an acute disease of infants and young children. It is characterized by fever that lasts for about 3 days, followed by the reduction of fever followed by a period and the emergence of dark pink makulopapularnog (pjegavog) rash.

Description of disease
Virus is found in saliva, urine and bronchial glands - Saliva is the most important route of transmission.Respiratory secretions of asymptomatic persons probably transmit the virus. The child most likely to spread infection during the febrile phase of disease before the outbreak of the rash.

Who gets?
It usually appears during the first two years of life and the most common osipna disease in children under two years.

Anamnestic data
The three-day fever typically characterized by high fever that lasts for 3 to 5 days without any apparent cause.After a period of fever followed by a characteristic rash.
The temperature is elevated (often up to 400C).
Rash (disappearing within a few hours to two days): maculopapular or erythematous (patchy, reddish) rash, typically begins on the trunk and can spread to the neck and extremities. Not itchy, pale on pressure.
Some children appear convulsions with fever (febrile convulsions) (6 to 15%).
There is also diarrhea (68%).
Predsimptomi (14%) were: fatigue, irritability and
cough (50%).

The clinical examination
fever (98%);
rash (98%) present as red or pink spots, maculopapular spots approximately 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The spots are marked by a discreet, less puffy and pale skin surface with bleach. Typically, the three-day fever, rash includes trunk or back rack with minimal facial or upper limbs. Some spots may be surrounded by a ring of pale skin like a halo.
splenomegaly (enlarged spleen);
encephalopathy (brain changes due to the effects of harmful substances);
conjunctival erythema (redness of conjunctiva).

What results can I do?
Because of the benign nature and short duration of the three-day fever, is usually not carried out laboratory tests if a child is brought with the classic history of the disease.
If it is a complete blood count, we can determine the reduction in the number of white blood cells. White blood cells are usually returned to normal within a week.

Treatment of three-day fever comes down to relieve symptoms by reducing fever (cold packs, showers, syrups and suppositories containing paracetamol).

febrile convulsions;
Encephalitis (rare);
meningitis (inflammation of the meninges);
hepatitis (liver inflammation). 

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