Thursday, April 5, 2012

Elevated blood lipids (hyperlipidemia)


A group of disorders characterized by excess fat in the blood, such as cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Hyperlipidemia is caused by excess lipids in the blood and is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and heart disease. Hyperlipidemia may be caused by genetic factors, as in some hereditary diseases, or secondary factors in acquired hyperlipidemia. The forms of lipids are cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins, which are molecules of fat and cholesterol-related protein. The types of lipoproteins are very low density (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL). Chylomicrons are also classified as lipoproteins and are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol and proteins. There are also high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely related to risk of heart disease and are therefore known as factors "antirisk".
There are 6 types of hyperlipidemia, which are differentiated by the type (s) who have elevated lipid levels. Some types may be caused by a primary disorder such as familial hyperlipidemia, and some are due to secondary causes. Secondary causes of hyperlipidemia are associated with diseases associated with hyperlipidemia, dietary risk factors and medication associated with hyperlipidemia.
Risk factors for this disease are diabetes, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and certain types of kidney failure. Risk factors associated with medication birth control pills, hormones such as estrogen and corticosteroids, certain diuretics, and beta-blockers.
Dietary risk factors are dietary fat intake greater than 40% of total calories, saturated fat intake greater than 10% of total calories, cholesterol intake greater than 300 milligrams per day; chronic excessive alcohol intake, and increased body weight.
The incidence of hyperlipidemia in the population is 1%. Disease is more common in men than in women.

Symptoms
There are no symptoms.

Tests
Carried out clinical examination and laboratory tests to identify secondary causes of hyperlipidemia or hereditary disorders, if they have elevated levels of lipoproteins. Normal cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations depend on age.

Treatment
The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease using a treatment that is aimed at lowering blood lipids. Changing the diet is the initial step in treatment. In people with obesity, it is recommended weight reduction to ideal body weight. Reduction of total calories, cholesterol and saturated fat is appropriate for most people. The degree of dietary restriction is proportional to the degree of hyperlipidemia.
If within two months, during which it carried out the recommended diet there is no normalization of laboratory findings, beginning with the medication.

Expectations (prognosis)
Diet and drug therapy is likely to continue throughout a person's life. Periodic monitoring of lipid levels and cholesterol levels is needed to determine response to treatment. Studies have shown that lowering high cholesterol in the blood does not reduce the progression of atherosclerosis.

Complications
atherosclerosis;
coronary artery disease;
When you need to contact a doctor
This condition is usually established when a physician reviews the results of laboratory analysis. If you have hyperlipidemia, you must be aware that you have an increased risk of heart disease.

Prevention
Examinations for the detection of hyperlipidemia should be part of routine health checks for people aged 20 to 30 years of age. Reducing dietary risk factors by maintaining ideal body weight, well balanced diet low in fat and cholesterol intake restriction will help in preventing the occurrence of hyperlipidemia.


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