Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Diabetic polyneuropathy


Regular control of sugar and fat in the blood, maintaining optimal body weight and physical activity can prevent the occurrence of diabetic polyneuropathy. 

Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. In as much as 50% of cases there is damage to the peripheral nervous system, whose level and clinical features depend on the duration of disease, treatment is applied by the patient and blood sugar levels. Most often affected sciatic nerves or their branches, but hurt and nerves in other parts of the body (hands, feet, face). Polyneuropathy mostly occurs after the fiftieth year of life, but may be faced in the past, even before they are diagnosed with a metabolic disorder. Suffer equally by men and women, and in a very small percentage (2%) and children.


The cause of
To date, it is not precisely established the exact cause of diabetic polyneuropathy, but it is known that factors affecting its formation and development:
-Circulatory disorder that causes damage to small blood vessels
-The accumulation of fat in the cells of the nervous depletion, which disrupts their normal activity
-Metabolic disorders that interfere with the flow of proteins, transmitters (transmitters) and other nutrients in the final parts of the nerve
-Smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy diet have a significant impact on the development of diabetic polyneuropathy.


How to recognize the disorder?
Polyneuropathy occurs gradually and in the initial stage does not give any symptoms. In the asymptomatic stage only a doctor can see when viewing a weakened sensitivity and reduced reflexes in patients. The most common symptoms that characterize this disease are shooting or tingling in the legs, especially feet, occasional or constant feeling of numbness, feeling that the feet are in boots or socks. May be present and consuming constant stimuli, and even severe pain.

Less frequently reported pain in the calves, feet or hands. A patient is described as walking very uncomfortable or painful. After the first symptoms appear, and other signs of illness: lost tendon reflexes, foot numbness occurs, which further expands on the lower legs, hands and entire body. May develop skin lesions, foot (dry, thin skin is prone to cracking) and sores.
Also, there are changes in the pupils of the eye, skin, hair, nails, impaired sweating, blood pressure regulation ...

Prevention
Given that the polyneuropathy occurs primarily as a result of hyperglycemia, it is clear that one of the most important ways of preventing the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. At the onset of complications of diabetes in general, and particularly the development of diabetic polyneuropathy, and influence others, also very important factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, cholesterol and unhealthy diet.

In any case, patients self-control is what we are insisting and includes regular review by a neurologist at least once a year, and if there are any symptoms, and several times during the year.
Physical activity also plays an important role in the prevention of polyneuropathy. Medium intensity daily walking or cycling are sufficient to maintain a satisfactory state of health and reduce the risk of disease.
Patients with diabetes and polyneuropathy, especially to take care of foot care. This includes regular cleaning, preferably mineral water and daily inspection to exclude the existence of ulcers, calluses, ingrown toenails ... In addition, it is recommended to wear comfortable shoes and socks.


Diagnosis and treatment
The simplest way to confirm the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy is subjecting the patient EMNG in which checks the speed provodljviosti nerves. This is a very fast, simple and accurate method. The biggest problem is that the disease polyneuropathy in the early stages usually does not give any symptoms and the diagnosis is established only after the disease takes hold. It is therefore important that patients who suffer from diabetes regularly control blood sugar levels, and an annual visit to a neurologist will do a neurological and neuropsychological examination.

Treatment consists in controlling sugar and blood fat, maintaining optimal body weight, and application of medication and physical therapy. When it comes to medication, therapy is usually conducted by an infusion of alpha - lipoic acid, which is later taken orally in tablet form. To calm the pain and karabazepin used antidepressants. Patients with milder forms of this disease is given and B complex vitamins. Helpful in treating and alleviating the symptoms can be a physical procedure, and the leaders are applying methods of TENS and exercise - exercise that adapt to each patient depending on the severity of the disease.

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