Monday, April 9, 2012

Acute inflammation of the large airways


Acute infectious bronchitis is often preceded by a cold or other upper respiratory tract infection. Acute bronchitis usually goes over several days, although cough may be present for three weeks or more. If repeated bronchitis, see your doctor. You may have a serious medical problem known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is a generic term for a group of chronic conditions such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

What is acute bronchitis?
Acute inflammation of the large airways (trachea and bronchi or traheae or bronchi). Inflammation goes by herself to a full recovery without long-term consequences.

Description of disease
Acute bronchitis is most common in winter, usually after a cold or other viral infections of the throat or nose.Viruses usually cause bronchitis, which are: adenoviruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza, rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and others. The young person bronchitis can cause some "atypical" bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniaei and Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough.

Irritant bronchitis can cause a variety of plant and mineral dust, evaporation of strong acids, ammonia, detergents, pollution, and especially tobacco and other fumes.
Usually, the airways produce mucus, about 30 g per day. The secretion is not expensive because the body constantly cleans the cilia found on the surface of the lining of the respiratory system, and then coughs. The lining (mucosa) in the large airway is swollen and red. Impaired protection cilia. When the bronchi are inflamed, they can create large amounts of mucus that goes up when you cough. Bacteria can inhabit this altered bronchi and cause a secondary bacterial infection. Accumulates within the bronchial mucoid-gnojni content. Cough is the main mechanism of expulsion of bronchial secretions.

Who gets?
More likely to get acute bronchitis if you smoke or live with someone who smokes. The body is weakened another chronic disease, malnutrition and breathing polluted air, suitable factors for the development of bronchitis.
There is a risk of developing bronchitis irritation if you are exposed to the chemical evaporation of ammonia, strong acids, chlorine, sulfide acid, sulfuric dioxide, bromine, or dust that irritates the airways. Irritant bronchitis usually goes when you are more exposed to evaporation or excitant.

Symptoms
Acute bronchitis is often preceded by fever, chills, weakness, a little fever, back pain, aching muscles and sore throat. The cough is initially dry, but after a few hours or days may appear small amounts of dense, tough, yellowish-gray phlegm (sputum). After coughing can become more abundant, mucous and purulent. Very gnojni sputum indicates bacterial infection. Some viruses such as adenovirus, may mimic a bacterial infection (sputum is thick and yellow, and the cough may last several weeks).
Small children often swallow iskaĊĦljanu mucus so that parents can not know the color of sputum. Some patients are consuming pain behind the breastbone. The pain increases during coughing. Symptoms usually disappear after 3 to 5 days. The patient may continue to cough, even a few weeks. Patients can sometimes run out of air if it is clogged airways.

Occasionally, chronic sinusitis can mimic the symptoms of bronchitis, so called. sinobronhalni syndrome.

What results can a doctor do?
The doctor will listen to your lungs stethoscope. You can hear the noises, wheezing or wheezing after coughing. If symptoms are severe and last longer, you need to do x-rays of the lungs. Sometimes it takes a sample of sputum to identify any bacterial pathogen.

Treatment
Stand still and relax while you have a fever. It takes a lot to take fluids by mouth (3 to 4 liters per day). Analgesics and antipyretics used to treat pain and fever.
Bronchitis is usually a result of viral infections in which antibiotics do not work. In younger patients where the suspicion of bacterial infection with Mycoplasma or Chlamydia, Azithromycin is applied once a day for three days.

We should not suppress coughs, if cough. All the secretions from the respiratory tract should be removed. The medications that can help, so. expectorants, but only if the patient is taking plenty of fluids.
If the doctor suspects a subsequent bacterial infection, can give you an antibiotic.

Complications
Serious complications usually occur only in patients with existing chronic respiratory disease or in heart patients.In these patients, acute bronchitis can cause a severe disruption of blood gases. Shortness of breath (dyspnea) can occur if there is a blockage of the airway.
Long-lasting fever suggests pneumonia, a serious disease that can be life threatening.

Prevention
If you have frequent bouts of bronchitis, it may be something in your environment. Cold, dump sites, especially when combined with air pollutants (including cigarette smoke), you can do it more sensitive. When a problem becomes serious, you may need to change residence.

Self-help
Follow these suggestions that may help in faster recovery and prevent development of complications:
A lot of rest.
Drink plenty of fluids (3 to 4 liters per day).
Use a humidifier in your room. Warm, moist air helps the release of mucus in the airways and coughing.
Take medicine for cough, which can be purchased at a pharmacy on sale.
If the cough is dry, and interferes with sleep and exhausted, it should alleviate the cough medicine. If possible, it is best not to stop coughing. Cough is the main mechanism of removal of mucus from the airways.
Avoid pollutants such as tobacco smoke.

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